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XRD (Powder and thin film)

pic31X’Pert³ MRD

The standard research and development version for use with thin film samples, wafers (complete mapping up to 100 mm) and solid materials. High-resolution analysis capability is improved by the outstanding accuracy of a new high-resolution goniometer using Heidenhain encoders.

The X'Pert³ MRD systems offer advanced and innovative X-ray diffraction solutions from research to process development and process control. The used technologies make all systems field upgradable to all existing options and new developments in hardware and software to come.

PanalyticalX’pert Pro MRD

Since the NPs produced in this study are very small and well separated on the substrate, the amount of available sample for pic2303analysis is usually very low. The signal strength from these NPs is therefore usually very weak and the signal is dominated by the substrate (e.g. Si). In order to concentrate the signal coming from the NPs, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) technique is used to examine the crystal structure of these hybrid NPs. In the GIXRD method, the detector is swept over the 2θ angle with the incidence angle (ω) of the X-ray beam kept at a very shallow angle (close to the critical angle of the sample). Because the incidence angle is below the critical angle, an evanescent wave is formed. This evanescent wave only penetrates into a thin layer (less than 100 nm) and travels on the surface of the sample, which leads to an enhanced interaction of the X-ray beam with the nanostructured layer on the surface of the substrate.76 As a result, the intensity of the signal collected from the surface layer that contains the hybrid NPs increases significantly. For this purpose, a parallel beam geometry with an X-ray mirror on the incident beam side and a parallel-plate collimator on the diffracted beam side is used. This configuration allows GIXRD measurements at a typical incidence angle of 0.5° for most samples.

 

 

pic33Grazing Incidence X-Ray Diffraction

(GIXRD) can determine the diffraction pattern from a very thin film or layer. This is sometimes difficult with ordinary diffraction, because 1) small volume of material in the film 2) strong contribution from the substrate swamps out film data

PANalyticalX'Pert Pro high-resolution MRD

  • Specifications
  • Maximum power: 60 kV, 55 mA, 2.2 kW
  • Tilt: up to 20°
  • Maximum sample weight: 300 g

Thin film XRD system has varied capability.

  • Accurate phase identification of nanoparticles using GIXRD
  • Can determine of film thickness, density and roughness by XRR method

Tube:

Anode

Material

Wavelength

Kα1 (Å)

Wavelength

Kα2 (Å)

Wavelength

Kα (Å)

Most Common Use

Cu 1.54056 1.54439

1.54184

Normal powder diffraction work. Phase

identification, quantitative analysis. High

resolution diffraction.

Power Characteristicspic32

Maximum high tension 60 kV

Maximum anode current 55 mA

Maximum anode power Dependent on anode material

Advised power settings 80% - 85% of maximum power

Advised standby ratings 30 - 40 kV, 10 - 20 mA

Operating temperature +5 ¢XC to +40 ¢XC